November 2020
Protonated cyanogen

The detection of protonated cyanogen (NCCNH+) was reported in 2015 by Agúndez et al. Using the IRAM 30 m telescope as well as the Yebes 40 m telescope in Guadalajara Province (outside Madrid), NCCNH+ was detected toward TMC-1 and L483 via a pair of rotational lines. The detection has evidently not been confirmed to date. The rotational spectrum of NCCNH+ used in the detection was drawn from laboratory studies by Amano & Scappini in 1991 and by Gottlieb et al. in 2000. NCCNH+ was explored as a tracer of cyanogen, which does not have a dipole moment; by contrast isocyanogen (CNCN) has a dipole moment and was detected in 2018.

Researcher Links
M Agúndez
J Cernicharo
P de Vicente
N Marcelino
E Roueff
A Fuente
M Gerin
M Guélin
& 14 coauthors

The cations detected in space fall into two categories: protonated atoms or closed-shell molecules like NCCNH+—including protonated He, Ar, water, H2, HCl, CO at C, CO at O, carbon dioxide, N2, cyanoacetylene, hydrogen cyanide, and formaldehyde—or ionized molecules like H2O+, HF+, CO+, OH+, SH+, SO+, and CF+.

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