2. Orbital Animations 3. Multiple Bonds 4. Organic Compounds
3. Multiple Bonds

Two ground state nitrogen atoms with 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1 valence electron configurations can combine to form triply bonded N2 if couplings are made between each of the singly occupied orbitals:

The coupling bar between the two out-of-plane 2p orbitals is curved in 2D coupling diagrams to avoid overlapping the σ bond coupling between the axial 2p orbitals. The next figure depicts the MOs and GVBOs for the σ bond and the in-plane π bond at the minimum separation. Near the minimum, the MOs are essentially the sum of the two GVBOs.

The GVBOs once again show how the atomic 2p orbitals polarize toward the other atom when N2 forms. It is easier to see this in the animations. First, the σ bond:

... and then the in-plane π bond:

There are more examples of compounds with mulitple bonds in §4, which presents a number of examples of organic compounds that use the linear, planar, and tetrahedral s-p hybridized glyphs.

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4. Coupling Diagrams for Organic Compounds
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